History of Bangla Language
Bengali, a member of the Indic group of Indo Iranian or Aryan branch of the Indo–European family of languages, originated from the eastern variety of the Magadhi Apabhramsa/Avahatta.The language has passed through two succsssive stages of development, namely the (1) Formative or old Bengali period, (b) Middle Bengali period. Presently Bangla is passing through its third stage of development, which is generally known as New or Modern Bengali period.
The period between 10th century A.D. and 12th century A.D. is known as the formative or Old Bangla period. The mystic songs of the Caryagiti is the representative of the old variety of Bangla language.
Medieval Bangla Period, which spans over 1250 A.D. to 1800 A.D. can be divided into Transitional, Early Middle Bangla and Late Middle Bangla period. During the transitional period the characteristic features of the language became identifiable. Srikrishnakirtan and the Vaishnava literature are the representatives of the early and Late Middle Bangla language respectively.
Pre Modern Bangla period is marked by the absence of prose, as the literary activity used to be carried out in poems only. Eastablishment of the British rule in India or for that matter the eastablishment of the Fort William College in Calctta in 1800A.D. was instrumental for the great change which marks the advent of Modern Age in Bangla language and literature.William Carey and others started writing text books in Bangla prose. Raja Rammohan Roy started translating Vedanta from Sanskrit into Bengali (1815 A.D.) and gradually Bangla literary prose style was eastablished which is considered to be a leap forward towards modernity.
Hutom PeMcar Naksa,(1862) by Kali Prasanna Singha , written in a free and racy style , was the first attempt to write a sketch of contmporary Calcutta in colloquial Bengali. Journey of Bangla prose towards homogeneity, that is, towards a free literary sadhu style (‘saadhu’ itself means ‘elite’) , from the earlier archaic Sanskritised sadhu form, took place during this period . Through his novels and essays, Bankimchandra gave Bangla literary prose the required strength and stability which was finally shaped by Rabindranath during this period. Bengali language got its new flavour in Tagore’s poems, plays and short stories. Plays of Girish Chandra Ghosh and Ramakrishna Kathamrita by Mahendranath Gupta (under the pseudonym “M”) also cotributed much, during the first decade of twentieth century, in shaping Bangla prose in its journey towards its destined goal.
Emancipation of Bangla from the Chaste or Sadhu literary style to Colloquial Standard style was made possible by the effort of Pramatha Chowdhury (Birbal) . Sabuj Patra (1914), the literary magazine established by him, played an important role in this direction.Besides this,the two other literary magazines viz.Gokul Nag’s Kallol (1923) and Sudhindranath Dutta’s Paricay (1931) have their due share in shaping Bangla language as many of the great writers of the first half of the Twentieth Century wrote in these magazines. During this period readers of Bengal got a new flavour of Bangla in the writings of Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay who dominated the literary scene of Bengal simultaneously with Tagore. During this period Bangla language was further enriched by the writings of the three great Bandopadhyays of Bangla literature viz. Tarashankar, Bibhutibhushan and Manik besides other poets, novelist and story writers of this era.
About International Mother Language Day
Bangla is the official language of Bangladesh, but this was not always the case as the establishment of Bangla was one of the major causes behind the formation of an independent Bangladesh.
International Mother Language Day is national holiday in Bangladesh . A remembrance day to honor the language martyrs who sacrificed their lives on 21st February, 1952 to establish Bangla as the national language of the then East Pakistan .
After partition from British India in 1947 the majority of Pakistans population was living in East Pakistan-modern day Bangladesh. Initially Urdu was established as the national language. The people of East Pakistan requested that Bangla become one of the state languages of Pakistan. The then government denied that request insisting that Urdu be the only language of Pakistan. Against this ruling, thousands of students and people protested through a general strike, disobeying the Government declaration.
On 21st February, 1952 the Pakistani police and military killed four student leaders. This further galvanized the Bengali nationalist movement in Bangladesh. Since that tragedy the people of Bangladesh observe the 21st February National Language Day, which is known as Ekushay, February in Bangla.
At the request of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, UNESCO in November 1999 declared 21st February as International Mother Language Day. In memory of the heroes of the Bangladesh language movement 188 countries around the world observe this day. In Bangladesh on this day people honor the memory of those martyrs through countrywide book fairs, dramas and other cultural celebrations of the Bangla language.
About Bangla Vowels
There are eleven vowels in Bangla with seven sounds-Long and short. Four of these vowels are specifically named as short and long. These are the short i (rosso i)and the long i (dirgho i), the short u and long u. In reading or in a speech sequence, the length or duration of a Bangla vowels seldom counts. But in the written form each has its distinctive use.
All the vowels in the initial position of a word retain their original shape; but when used with the consonants, all of them except O , the first vowel, change their shape. The new shape is a signature which in Bangla is called ?kar? and takes the name of the vowel it identifies. For example, “a” changes into “a kar”, “I” changes into “I kar” and so on.
About Bangla Consonants
The list of consonants in Bangla includes forty characters. But the units of sound are not more than twenty-nine.
The first twenty-five consonants are divided into five distinct phonetic groups. They have a well organized pattern of sounds. They are grouped according to the speech organs which articulate them as well as according to the manner in which they as articulated. In each group the second and the fourth are aspirated. The first and the third are unaspirated.